Everything about laser methods for the treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities
Varicose veins in the legs are a disease that affects about 40% of women and 20% of men, regardless of age. Treatment of varicose veins involves a number of different tools and techniques, including surgery of varying degrees of complexity.
Laser treatment of varicose veins is widespread in modern vascular surgery. And this is not surprising, because the classic surgical treatment - phlebectomy (complete or partial removal of blood vessels in the legs) is quite painful, highly traumatic and risky operation, after which a long and difficult rehabilitation period is required.
In addition, there is a risk of wound infection (completely or partially) after classical surgery to remove blood vessels in the legs, which is a significant disadvantage of such an intervention.
Laser treatment of varicose veins involves taking a dose of laser beam from the inside of the diseased vessel, sticking it together, and removing or dissolving it from the body's circulatory system.
Thus, laser coagulation of blood vessels has significant advantages in the form of:
- The procedure is performed in a short time.
- There is almost no risk of infection.
- relative security.
- There is no need for a recovery period after surgery.
Therefore, many patients prefer laser treatment of varicose veins in their legs as the fastest, least traumatic and economical method of anti-varicose therapy.
Methods of diagnosis of varicose veins
Before recommending one or another type of surgery to remove the veins in the legs, the treating physicians: a therapist or phlebologist prescribe a number of measures to diagnose the nature and extent of varicose veins of the lower extremities.
These will most likely be referred to the QLA and OAM by the therapist, and the phlebologist may prescribe any of these research activities:
- Duplex ultrasound examination. Allows to determine the dynamics of intravenous circulation and the condition of the venous walls of the calves of the legs. With the help of ultrasound, the doctor determines the degree of activity of blood flow through the veins, the amplitude of blood flow, as well as the condition of the vessels that require laser surgery.
- Phlebographic study of magnetic resonance. Using this method, the doctor excludes the presence of thrombotic formations. Such a study is carried out as follows: a special contrast agent is introduced into the venous vessels, which allows to accurately determine the pattern of the vessel under the influence of magnetism.
Recommendations for surgery
If the following symptoms of varicose veins in the legs are found, laser coagulation of varicose veins can be recommended to almost all patients, regardless of age and gender:
- Pain, burning and fullness in the veins in the legs.
- Convulsive events.
- Deformation of blood vessels.
- Phlebitis of superficial vessels.
- CVI (chronic venous insufficiency).
- capillary mesh on the surface of the skin.
In addition, the following factors are important factors that determine the importance of a type of surgical intervention, such as laser coagulation of varicose veins, by a phlebologist:
Laser therapy is performed only in the veins located directly under the skin itself. There can be both large and small venous vessels, but it is important that their location is close to the surface of the skin.
Laser removal of vessels is recommended, provided that the diameter does not exceed 10 mm. If the veins are deformed by more than 1 cm as a result of varicose veins of the lower extremities, there is a high probability that they will be further "soldered" and venous blood flow will be restored.
Laser-treated veins should be relatively straight, not bent, and adjacent veins should not be affected by severe varicose deformities, otherwise laser surgery may be ineffective.
Laser treatment of varicose veins allows only a limited area of the diseased veins to be exposed. "Long-distance running" with laser treatment is likely to be ineffective, which can cause the patient's arteries to stick together and restore blood flow to them.
Contraindications for laser ablation
Thus, laser treatment of varicose veins is not recommended if the deep veins are affected by the disease and the venous lumen dilates by more than 10 millimeters, as well as if the varicose veins affect a large area of the venous artery.
And in what other cases is laser removal of varicose veins prohibited?
- First, these are blood clots that have already formed inside the diseased blood vessels.
- Secondly, it is a strong destruction of the ship's structure.
- Third, they are severe dysfunctions of lymph and blood flow with varicose veins in the legs.
In addition, there are a number of contraindications to the treatment of laser veins, which are mainly temporary, removable. These include:
- Damage and inflammation of the skin, including trophic ulcers, especially at the site of the diseased vessel. If there is an inflammatory process, the risk of postoperative infection increases, so you must first undergo a course of treatment and only then undergo surgery.
- Pregnancy and lactation. The fact is that during this period, the body's immune system does not work at full capacity, and the amount of load on the calf, on the contrary, increases significantly.
- Obesity, excess weight. In addition to the difficult access to the location of the patient's artery, in this case there is an increased load on the calves of the legs again, which can significantly complicate the postoperative recovery process.
Types of laser treatment of blood vessels
- Endovasal laser coagulation When the walls of a venous vessel are glued to the inner vessel wall by the intravenous action of a laser beam, the space between them will gradually be filled with connective tissue.
- Laser coagulation of blood vessels is performed to remove spider veins on the surface of the skin without penetrating the vessel itself. Such an intervention involves heating small vessels (up to 3 mm in diameter) with laser beams at a temperature of about 70 degrees, resulting in the rupture of the vessel walls and the removal of the capillary network.
Method of surgery
Laser treatment of varicose veins in the legs is carried out in an outpatient setting. Because the localization of the venous vessels to be removed is usually small and all interventions are performed intravenously, no surgery is required under general anesthesia, and patients receive only local anesthesia.
To alleviate the increased nervousness before the operation, the patient is often advised to take a mild sedative, in which case it is desirable that one of the relatives accompany him home from the hospital.
Endovenous laser coagulation itself is performed as follows.
A micro-incision is made at the site of the affected vessel, after which a light guide is inserted. Through this medical device, laser beams of different frequencies enter the vein at the wavelength recommended by the doctor.
Once the laser radiation begins to flow, laser obliteration of the arteries occurs and the blood is gradually squeezed out of the vein.
As a result of the emptying of the intravascular space, the walls of the vessels come closer to each other, and then they almost completely stick together and grow with connective tissue.
Laser vein removal in the legs, as a rule, lasts between 20 and 40 minutes.
After laser removal of diseased parts of the vessels, the distribution of intravenous blood flow occurs in deeper venous vessels located in the thickness of the muscles and not much different during examination and palpation. In addition, there are virtually no wounds, scars or cyanosis on the skin surface after laser coagulation.
Postoperative therapy, a course of anti-inflammatory drugs, rehabilitation with bed rest, laser treatment are not required after an intervention, the patient can get up and go home almost immediately.
However, after a long stay in the supine position during the operation to remove the veins in the legs, patients are advised to slow down the process of getting up from the operating chair.
That is, first of all you need to take a sitting position and spend some time there to normalize intravenous blood flow.
And only then can you get up and go out. Patients, as a rule, do not feel pain, only a slight tingling effect is possible at the site of the removed vessels. So you do not need painkillers!
An important point in the postoperative period is the need to always wear therapeutic compression underwear: golf, tights, socks, compression class will also be recommended by the attending physician.
As a rule, such underwear should be worn for a long time, up to 50-60 days in a row, and for the first two days it is forbidden to take it off, even at night.
Due to the compression effect, such underwear will ensure an even distribution of blood flow within the veins of the foot, which will eliminate swelling and other unpleasant symptoms of varicose veins.
As the vessels being operated on fill with connective tissue and the blood flow is distributed to deeper, healthier vessels, the need for underwear will gradually disappear.
Patients who have undergone laser surgery are usually not granted sick leave unless their work activity is related to constant tension in the calf area, prolonged standing or lifting weights.
In the absence of these moments, the patient can return to work the next day.
It is also recommended to walk comfortably on a flat road surface for 20-30 minutes immediately after the operation, after wearing compression underwear.
Different people have their own ideas about the procedure, watch the video where the girl explains how the operation went.
Laser treatment of varicose veins is the most preferred, modern and painless method of intervention, accessible to almost every patient.
However, in addition to surgeons, patients themselves must help to get rid of varicose veins.
Thus, your daily routine should include a course of therapeutic exercises recommended for patients with varicose veins, abstain from alcohol and smoking, and avoid excessively salty, spicy and smoked foods.
Baths and saunas should be banned, especially for the first time after surgery.
In addition, if professional activity is associated with constant standing or, conversely, a long stay at the computer, it is necessary to periodically take a break for rest or a short walk.
Look at the condition of your feet, do not start developing varicose veins! Remember - our health is in our own hands!