The first signs of varicose veins in the legs

Varicose veins are a serious disease that causes many unpleasant consequences: itching and discomfort, fatigue and unpleasant appearance of the legs, thrombophlebitis. About 20% of the world's population suffers from this disease. The disease requires careful and long-term treatment, so therapy should begin immediately after the patient detects the first signs of varicose veins in the legs. This will help to avoid surgery and return the legs to their previous appearance painlessly.

Causes of varicose veins

heaviness in the legs with varicose veins

Varicose veins are classified as genetic diseases. However, in some cases, the disease may not progress. A person's lifestyle and professional activity aggravate the condition of the arteries. The risk group includes people whose activities involve regular weight lifting and standing or sitting for long periods of time. People who are overweight and pregnant women are also susceptible to varicose veins. Other common reasons:

  • endocrine system disorders, hormonal disorders (puberty, pregnancy, menopause);
  • mechanical obstructions in blood flow (blood clots and tumors);
  • stress and regular nervous tension, bad habits;
  • formation of arterial-venous fistulas;
  • regular wearing of uncomfortable shoes, tight socks and stockings that slow down the blood flow process;
  • excessive constipation during regular constipation and bowel movements;
  • sedentary lifestyle.

If you do not want to miss the first signs of varicose veins, visit a phlebologist every year. During pregnancy, women are required to undergo at least two specialist examinations.

Symptoms of the disease

The disease is dangerous because it is difficult to diagnose at an early stage. The first signs of varicose veins of the legs are similar to the usual fatigue that is common in residents of large cities. They are accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • pain and burning sensation in the veins;
  • feeling of heaviness and swelling of the legs;
  • night cramps;
  • the appearance of dilated and transparent vessels through the skin, felt on palpation (mostly in the popliteal fossa and behind the legs);
  • darkening and thickening of the skin of the lower leg.

All of the above symptoms may worsen over time, so immediate treatment is required. If left untreated, varicose veins can spread to the entire surface of the feet, even the feet. In this case, the skin turns blue and dries, red spots and trophic ulcers are observed. Body temperature rises with a complex phase. At night, bleeding is possible due to rupture of the nodules.

Stages of development

The division of varicose veins into stages is very arbitrary and is based on specific symptoms. The following stages of varicose veins are distinguished:

  • The initial stage. Varicose veins in the legs begin slowly and without visible symptoms. At this stage, the presence of the disease can be determined only in consultation with a phlebologist. The patient is worried about the rapid fatigue of the legs, swelling, itching and a feeling of fullness in the calf area. At the end of the day, a regular desire to massage your feet can also be a disturbing symptom.
  • First degree. The symptoms of varicose veins get worse, but with timely treatment you can get rid of them. The patient begins to feel that the feeling of fatigue and itching in the evening does not go away, even in the morning, there is discomfort when wearing shoes due to swelling of the feet, the burning sensation spreads above the calf area. It is often difficult for a person to fall asleep, and the first thoughts about taking painkillers arise.
  • Second degree. Varicose veins in the legs are often diagnosed at this stage. The visible symptoms of the disease are visible: the vessels are deformed and they become dense and bulging, the colors become darker, nodules and venous mesh appear. All this is accompanied by constant pain and fatigue. Requires help from a specialist.
  • Third degree. The skin on the feet becomes denser, turns blue, and the veins are clearly visible. It seems to the patient that the venous nodes can burst at the slightest pressure. Varicose ulcers can form. The patient has difficulty walking and every movement causes him a lot of pain.

If you have any suspicious symptoms, consult a phlebologist immediately. Neglecting treatment can have serious consequences.

Complications if left untreated

These are very painful diseases that require serious and long-term treatment. They are characterized by the following features:

  • acute superficial vascular thrombophlebitis;
  • trophic ulcers;
  • phlebothrombosis.

Bleeding during dilation of the vessels of the lower extremities also indicates the development of complications.

Chronic venous insufficiency

Ultrasound diagnosis of varicose veins

The development of varicose veins goes through four main stages (from minimal changes in hemodynamics to inflammation of the deepest vascular anastomosis):

  1. Stage zero: no clinical symptoms. Mild swelling of the feet may occur.
  2. Stage one: the vessels dilate significantly, but there are no trophic disorders.
  3. Second stage: the veins swell and form nodules, skin pigmentation, eczema, ulcers. During the echographic examination, a diagnosis of vascular valve insufficiency is made.
  4. Stage 3: Persistent trophic disorders are added to all of the above symptoms. This stage requires surgery.

Inflammation of a vein in the leg has the following symptoms: itching and pain, night cramps, swelling, ulcers. Painful sensations increase with the use of elastic compressions and walking at a slow pace. When a person is engaged in sports, he experiences anxiety, restlessness, emotional stress. The level of efficiency is falling.

Trophic ulcer

This disease is the result of venous outflow decompensation. It is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • slow growth rate;
  • more penetrates the walls of blood vessels, which leads to darkening of the dermis and hyperpigmentation;
  • lacquered pale seals are formed, which indicates the beginning of the ulcer process.

The slightest injury can cause ulcers. Bruises with varicose veins in the legs are easily absorbed if treated in time. However, in the absence of therapy, they cause inflammation of the soft tissues, which leads to secondary infection and purulent complications.

Treatment is with antibacterial drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient is prescribed 2 weeks of bed rest. The lesion is washed with antiseptics and covered with gauze bandage. Water-soluble osmotic active ointment is used for compresses.

When forming granulation tissue, laser and ultraviolet radiation are determined. It is recommended to wear compression stockings during the formation of connective tissue elements. After the ulcer is completely closed, a complex operation is performed.

Pulmonary thromboembolism

Manifestations of varicose veins can cause blood clots. This disease is dangerous because it often causes unexpected death. A thrombus closes the arterial bed. As a result, the blood supply to the lung tissue is cut off. The main symptoms of thromboembolism include:

  • painful sensations in the sternum;
  • significant increase in body temperature;
  • landslide attacks;
  • tachycardia;
  • blood cough;
  • cyanosis;
  • severe cough with moist wheezing;
  • shortness of breath.

Treatment is carried out using drugs (thrombolytic anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents) and surgery (pulmonary embolectomy).

The first steps on the path to recovery

The symptoms of varicose veins should not be masked and ignored. However, you should seek medical help before starting treatment. The course of therapy depends on the results of the examination. Recommended in the early stages of varicose veins:

  • conducting therapeutic massage sessions;
  • use of creams and painkillers to increase the elasticity of the skin of the feet;
  • application of compresses;
  • exercise therapy;
  • frequent walks.

Conservative therapy for varicose veins includes the use of venotonics, anti-inflammatory drugs, strengthening drugs, analgesics, cardiology and anticonvulsants.

Sclerotherapy, ozone therapy and compression therapy are used to treat the late stages of varicose veins. In the most advanced cases, doctors resort to surgery (laser coagulation, phlebectomy, sclerotherapy, radiofrequency coagulation).

A new approach to life

gymnastics for varicose veins

Lifestyle adjustments are needed to increase the effectiveness of treatment. The beginning of a new healthy life should be accompanied by:

  • reduction in the amount of physical activity;
  • swimming lessons;
  • wear compression stockings;
  • rational nutrition and weight control;
  • abstinence from alcohol and smoking.

Women prone to varicose veins should avoid high-heeled shoes. The optimal heel height is 4 cm. Shoes should be wide enough and comfortable.

About prevention

Prophylactic measures against varicose veins involve following all the rules. People who are at risk and prone to developing the disease need:

  1. Follow a rational mode of activity: work and rest should alternate during the day.
  2. During prolonged sitting, regularly change the position of the body and avoid a cross position.
  3. Do not wear skinny shoes and high heels, skinny pants and socks.
  4. Follow the rules of healthy eating, avoid constipation.
  5. To give up bad habits.
  6. Engage in physical education and gymnastics, cycling.
  7. Do not abuse hot baths, baths and sunbathing.

At the next examination, a phlebologist may prescribe drugs that strengthen the walls of blood vessels.

04.12.2021