Varicose veins of the lower extremities (VBLK)

When people see a diagnosis of VDVL in a medical book, they often don't understand it. In fact, this process hides varicose veins of the lower extremities. The disease is characterized by elongation and subsequent deformation of blood vessels. This pathology is very common. About 76% of residents suffer from varicose veins of the legs to varying degrees. Next, we will look at the symptoms of the disease and how to prevent its development.

Early causes of the disease

The disease can be primary or secondary. It all starts with a lack of venous valves. It can be congenital or acquired. With congenital malformations, varicose veins manifest themselves in childhood. Acquired deficiency develops against the background of exposure to pathogenic factors. These include:

  • heavy physical labor;
  • staying in one position for a long time;
  • period of hormonal changes;
  • long-term use of inappropriate hormonal drugs;
  • pregnancy.

Bad habits should not be ruled out. Under the influence of ethanol and nicotine, the walls of blood vessels become more fragile, which accelerates the development of VBNK. Some doctors believe that this disease is common to all people, because a very large load falls on the arteries and skeleton due to the upright posture. Other experts do not support this theory and believe that patients are to blame for the formation of varicose veins.

causes of varicose veins of the extremities

Symptoms of varicose veins

Manifestations of the disease depend on its stage. In the first stage, patients are only interested in the visual manifestations of the disease. In humans, spider veins appear, and veins appear under the skin after exercise or at the end of the day. Some patients complain of heaviness in the legs. Symptoms of stage II venous dilatation:

  • increased fatigue;
  • a strong feeling of heaviness in the legs;
  • swells legs and lower leg during short walks;
  • leg and foot cramps are observed at night.

In the second stage of the disease, visual manifestations are more pronounced. In the standing position, the veins are very open and edema is noticeable. If the patient stops for a while, the symptoms are less or completely disappear. The third stage of varicose veins is defined by open dilation of the veins. The skin becomes drier, trophic ulcers often occur, which requires the use of special drugs for treatment. People are constantly experiencing pain in the legs.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

Usually a phlebologist sees the first signs of the disease during a regular examination of the patient's feet. After examining the patient's complaints, the doctor may order an instrumental examination of the vessels. Diagnosis and diagnosis of varicose veins of VBNK is based on ultrasound results in 90% of cases. Of course, the patient must undergo biochemical and clinical blood tests. If the ultrasound gives suspicious results, the patient is referred for the following types of diagnostics:

  • duplex scanning;
  • contrast computed tomography;
  • radiopaque phlebography;
  • occlusal plethysmography;
  • rheovasography.
Diagnostic options for varicose veins of the lower extremities

Effective Treatment

Therapy for varicose veins is multifaceted. This does not mean that it can help a person fight the disease. Treatment of varicose veins begins with taking medication and using creams, ointments or gels. It is also recommended that you wear compression stockings. If these methods fail, patients are referred for physiotherapy and surgery.

Elastic Compression Therapy

Knitted underwear with a certain amount of pressure can be worn without varicose veins to reduce the vascular load. If you have been diagnosed with this disease, be sure to buy specialized socks or bandages. The degree of compression should be determined by a phlebologist. You can also use elastic bandages instead of medical underwear, but this is not very comfortable because you have to wear them all the time.

Medication intake

The drug is rarely effective in the later stages of the disease. By itself, it will not prevent further progression of the disease, but will help restore blood vessels. Doctors often prescribe the following types of drugs to patients:

  • Toning of blood vessels. There are substances involved in the construction of the vessel wall.
  • Improving microcirculation. Drugs in this group move blood and other nutrients faster through the arteries.
  • Prevent blood clotting. These drugs help the liver break down bad cholesterol.
  • Painkiller. These drugs have a cooling effect on the feet.

Sclerotherapy

Specialized substances are injected into the affected vein, injuring them from the inside. As a result, over time, it contracts and becomes a tendon. If the vein is severely dilated, this method may not be effective because the drug will dissolve and the vein will return to normal blood circulation. In addition, this technique is contraindicated for patients with allergies.

Hirudotherapy

One of the reasons for the development of varicose veins is "thick" blood. Leeches will help to get rid of this problem. Hirudotherapy should not be used for patients with allergies and anemia. As for the procedure itself, 3-4 leeches are glued in place of the venous node, and the rest are placed along the entire length of the vein. The procedure is performed once every 7-14 days. It is often not possible to come to hirudotherapy because the patient may have anemia.

Physiotherapy

The patient is exposed to specialized medical devices that improve blood microcirculation and increase the tone of the vessel walls. This is both traditional electrophoresis and segmental barotherapy. This includes massage and the use of low-frequency magnets. The type of physiotherapy appropriate for the patient should be selected by the attending physician based on the results of the examination.

Physiotherapy for varicose veins of the lower extremities

Surgical treatment

Varicose vein surgery of the lower extremities is one of the most effective ways to eliminate the disease. Compared to the conservative method, the surgical method allows you to completely get rid of the damaged vessel and stop the further development of the disease. Surgical methods:

  • phlebectomy;
  • miniflebectomy;
  • endoscopic vascular dissection;
  • radio frequency ablation;
  • peeling (short or atraumatic);
  • laser coagulation.
laser treatment of varicose veins

Proper nutrition

Food should be low in calories, but also rich in useful vitamins. The patient can eat all kinds of meat, but only cooked, baked or boiled. It is not recommended to fry dishes in oil. It is recommended that the main part of the diet consists of fruits and vegetables. They contain many vitamins and minerals that are beneficial for cell metabolism.

nutrition guidelines for varicose veins

Spa treatment

Visits to special centers are indicated for people with any chronic disease. This list includes patients with VBNK. In the case of vascular lesions, it is best to choose places where radon water is present. If there is a change in tissue trophism, you should go to a sanatorium with sources of nitrogen or hydrogen sulfide. After surgery, the patient can apply for sanatorium treatment no later than 2 months.

spa treatment of varicose veins

Complications after treatment

Side effects vary depending on the type of therapy chosen. If there is a surgical procedure involving the removal or cutting of blood vessels, the patient will experience severe pain in the limbs for some time. One of the disadvantages of sclerotherapy may be the resorption of the substance and the introduction of blood vessels into normal blood circulation. Then the therapy will simply not work.

If there is no effect after treatment, the disease will begin to develop according to the standard pattern. The patient will develop trophic ulcers in the affected areas of the leg. Then the active formation of blood clots that cause thrombophlebitis will begin. If the cholesterol plaque ruptures, the patient may at best experience a complete blockage of the artery. In the worst case, the blood clot will enter the bloodstream and then the pulmonary artery. This can lead to disability or death of the patient.

Duplication Prevention and Prevention

Preventing the development of varicose veins is much easier than treating it. The general recommendations are the same for all patients: physical therapy, getting rid of bad habits, re-adjusting your diet and, in general, reducing the load on your feet. If you can not follow all the recommendations, at least try to increase physical activity and eliminate unnecessary stress on the limbs with the help of special accessories.

Physiotherapy exercises

The exercises are very simple. This is an ordinary birch tree and scissors. The patient may swing spontaneously while lying on the floor. Tension has a positive effect on the condition of varicose veins. It helps improve tissue trophism and prevents the development of osteochondrosis. However, free weights (dumbbells and barbells over 10-15 kg) cannot be performed. They create additional static stress, which is very harmful to blood vessels.

People with varicose veins can swim and stretch. Staying in the water reduces stress on the joints, and deep stretching will help improve blood flow to the pelvic organs and limbs. It is advisable for the instructor to prepare a specific training set for the patient. VBNK patients should not visit saunas and baths.

physiotherapy exercises for varicose veins of the extremities

Healthy lifestyle

Quitting alcohol and smoking is a sure step to prevent the development of varicose veins in the legs. The patient should establish a work and rest regime. It is recommended to lie down every day. You also need to minimize the impact of negative factors on your body, ie avoid stress, wear comfortable clothes and so on. It is recommended to travel everywhere on foot. A healthy person should walk at least 7 km a day.

Reducing foot loads

Many patients confuse the reduction of vascular load with the complete elimination of physical activity. These two points are completely unrelated. Exercise should be in the patient's life. It is advisable to do stretching every day, but the total load on the legs can be reduced. This is done in several ways:

  1. Get rid of bad habits. Diagonal standing is not allowed. Also, do not sit in a chair with one foot under you. In both cases, you create additional stress on the ships.
  2. Wear comfortable clothes and accessories. You should not buy jeans that are 2 sizes smaller than you currently have, or try to go with shoes with narrow toes when the foot itself is wide. First of all, a person prone to varicose veins should have their own health.
  3. Use compression stockings. Today you can find different types of medical linens in pharmacies and specialty stores. People prone to VBNK are advised to replace standard tights, knees and socks with compression. Visually, they are practically no different from ordinary ones, but during this time they reduce the load on ships.
  4. Use of special accessories for rest. Various massage pads and applicators help reduce stress. Orthopedic and massage pillows can be used not only during work, but also after sleep.
  5. Massage. You can do it yourself or entrust it to an experienced massage therapist. This procedure is useful only in the early stages of the disease. In the second and third stages of varicose veins can not be massaged.

In general, the development of VBNK can be prevented if the disease is treated comprehensively. Do not think that only medications or exercise will help restore the previous elasticity of the arteries. It is necessary to follow all the doctor's prescriptions and, if necessary, do not be afraid to surgically remove damaged blood vessels.

10.03.2021