Varicose veins are a pathological process characterized by the defeat of blood vessels in the human body (the diameter of the lumen increases, the wall becomes thinner, "knots" are formed - local aneurysm-like enlargements.
Stages of varicose veins
In medicine today it is customary to distinguish 4 stages of the disease:
- 1 initial stage:is characterized mainly by the presence of subcutaneous (vascular networks), intradermal varicose veins; segmental varicose veins may be observed; With grade 1 varicose veins, there is absolutely no pathological disturbance of hemodynamics;
- Stage 2:At this stage there are segmental varicose veins associated with small saphenous veins; grade 2 disease, accompanied by a decrease in the work of perforators and valves;
- Stage 3:The love phase of large vessels against the background of hemodynamic disturbances;
- Stage 4:The nature of the disease corresponds to stage 3 of the development of pathology in men or women, but there is a deep lesion in the vessels.
Causes of varicose veins
The main causes of varicose veins in the extremities or other parts of the body are lifestyle and heredity. In the latter case, a person from birth has weak vascular walls that easily stretch under load (the lumen expands) and pass through the fluid (which contributes to swelling).
Obesity can contribute to the development of pathology. Excess weight is the cause of constant excessive pressure on the walls of the arteries, which often leads to deformation of the arteries. The reasons for the onset of the disease are hormonal changes associated with a decrease in wall tone (for example, when taking contraceptives, during pregnancy).
The development of the disease can lead to increased intra-abdominal pressure observed in a person with persistent cough, prostate adenoma, chronic constipation. Excessive pressure on the vessels is dangerous by provoking them to varicose veins. The result is hemorrhoids, varicose veins in the legs, varicocele.
Age is also one of the possible causes of the onset of the disease. During service in the body, vessels lose their elasticity and cannot withstand the pressure inside. The development of the disease is often observed in patients with deep vein thrombosis. At risk are people who develop or have congenital anomalies that cause an increase in chronic intravenous pressure in the vascular structure (e. g. , arteriovenous fistulas).
Symptoms of varicose veins
In the early stages, the disease can continue without any symptoms. At this point, the appearance of blood vessels on the surface of the skin does not bother a person (perhaps only cosmetically).
Over time, people begin to feel swelling, heaviness and fatigue in their legs. This is followed by a period when the veins begin to feel well and rise above the surface of the skin; nodular formations appear under the latter.
Trophic disorders cause hyperpigmentation, cracks, dry skin, eczema, varicose dermatitis, ulcers. When a period of severe circulatory disorders occurs, convulsions can occur, trophic ulcers that are difficult to treat in the body.
As a rule, swelling of the legs, which is always the result of varicose veins, thickens over time, becoming more prominent in appearance and texture.
Diagnosis of varicose veins
The disease is easily diagnosed in the extremities, especially in the later stages, when there are characteristic changes in the surface of the skin. Diagnosis in the early stages and with pathology of the internal veins is carried out today with triplex angioscan, Doppler ultrasound and ultrasound. According to the results, the doctor assesses the stage of the disease and prescribes treatment.
The most complete results are obtained by angioanalysis, which assesses all the blood vessels in the human body. This method is 95% of all cases of the disease. . . In 98%, it is used in radioisotope scanning with some relapses.
Treatment of varicose veins
Therapy includes an integrated approach to the treatment of the disease:
- angioprotectors, phlebotropic drugs are prescribed (to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, protect them from damage, increase their elasticity);
- In addition to medications, physiotherapy exercises that stimulate blood flow in the arteries are prescribed to help the patient prevent blood stasis;
- it is recommended to wear special compression stockings (helps to push blood along the vascular bed);
- procedures include treatment of phlebosclerosis;
- surgical methods are used;
- Folk methods are recommended to correct varicose veins;
- massage and pneumocompression therapy are performed.
An integrated approach to the fight against varicose veins allows to have the necessary impact on the pathogenesis, symptoms of the disease. As a result, the patient's condition improves significantly and the disease can be completely eliminated. The use of surgical techniques is possible at stages that are not suitable for therapeutic or other treatment - the decision is made by a phlebologist.
Treatment of varicose veins in pregnant and lactating women
Varicose veins do not always indicate a disease in women during pregnancy and while feeding the baby. Whether or not to treat them is determined by a phlebologist who needs mandatory consultation at these stages of life.
If urgent action is needed, the best treatment for breastfeeding mothers and pregnant women is to wear compression stockings, be active, or wear an elastic bandage.
The lactation period is characterized by an increase in the load on the arteries, so you should not expect great results from the treatment measures taken during this period. It is better to take intensive measures, the necessary operations after breastfeeding.
Sclerotherapy, currently preferred by many patients for treatment, is also ineffective for pregnant and lactating women. It is better to stop the procedures and then continue.
The need for surgery as the most effective treatment is determined only by a doctor on the basis of a special examination. In general, this decision is made with advanced forms of the disease: for example, if the legs are covered with convex veins resembling thick cords with knots.
In most cases, the damaged areas of the superficial vessels are removed during the operation; deep vessels are never operated. Blood flow from the removed vessels is stopped and compensated by deep-seated vessels. According to experts, blood circulation is not disturbed, and even improves.
Today, vascular surgery uses minimally invasive techniques to minimize trauma to the human body. One of them is a thorough examination of the veins and a short peel, which covers only the removal of the affected parts from the varicose veins.
Cryophlebectomy and laser treatment of the disease by intravascular coagulation are used in leading clinics. The first operation involves inserting a cryoprobe through an incision in the groin inside the vessel and removing the frozen container. The second involves the insertion of a laser light emitting diode into a vein and the effect of the laser beam on the vessel walls. The result is instantaneous destruction; The procedure itself takes a few minutes and the patient receives minimal trauma.
Cream for varicose veins
An integrated approach to the treatment of varicose veins allows you to fight this disease in the most effective way. Pills, ointments, needles, gels and creams are used for this purpose.
Special therapeutic creams for varicose veins are used in the courses; The duration is determined individually by a phlebologist. These drugs against varicose veins are applied only at night or three times a day, if indicated. After two weeks of application, the veins in the legs become smaller, the "stars" in the veins disappear, and the skin becomes more well-groomed and beautiful.
Compression underwear for varicose veins
Wearing compression stockings is one of the measures that can help fight the disease. The principle of its positive effect on the body is to create different strong pressure on different parts of the limbs.
Maximum compression in socks (100% possible for the type of underwear) is carried out on the ankle, which helps the blood to rise more easily. Higher pressure is less; The difference is that it helps stagnant blood flow, helps to eliminate or reduce the symptoms of the disease.
Compression underwear is made of elastic material: lycra, cotton, microfiber, nylon. It has an aesthetic appearance, no visible seams. The clothes are breathable, pleasant to the skin, hypoallergenic. The shelf life of the medicinal properties of the products is up to six months.
Treatment of varicose veins with traditional medicine
This unpleasant disease has long been treated with folk remedies. In this case, the affected parts of the body acquire an aesthetic appearance, the blood vessels become stronger, which excludes future manifestations of the disease.
In general, folk remedies are used simultaneously with the removal of varicose veins with drugs. Here are some tips to use the forces of nature in the fight against this disease:
- herbs: wormwood flowers and leaves are ground (you can use a blender); The resulting slurry is mixed with sour milk in a ratio of 1: 1; the resulting mixture, wrapped in gauze, is applied to the bumps on the skin and "spider webs";
- Red tomatoes can be treated at home - cut into slices placed on problem areas of the skin; in a position fixed with a bandage 3. . . Keep for 4 hours.
- tomato juice - one of the effective helpers in the fight against varicose veins; drink at least one glass every day:
- Taking a teaspoon of ground coconut on an empty stomach every morning helps to relieve heaviness and pain in the legs.
Prevention of varicose veins
Preventing a disease is easier than treating it. With this in mind, you should follow these tips:
- shoes should not have a high (more than 5. . 6 cm) heel; should be comfortable and convenient for you;
- to move more; do not take an elevator - it is better to go to the floor;
- Always do simple exercises: move your legs in different directions; alternately lift the toes by lowering them to the heels;
- swim as much as possible, ride a bike, run;
- jump, try to keep the weight;
- Prevention of varicose veins includes the requirement to quit smoking;
- Massage your feet with your fingers and palms more often;
Contraindications in case of illness: weightlifting, weight lifting (for example, lifting bags on the floor).