Causes of varicose veins in the legs, its symptoms and features of removal

Pathology can affect any part of the body, with large veins (stomach, esophagus, male testes), but is the most common varicose veins of the lower extremities. Talk about the causes of varicose veins, diagnosis and removal.

Varicose veins is an irreversible dilation due to dysfunction of the valves involved in the mechanism of blood circulation in the veins of the lower extremities. Normal contraction and relaxation of the muscles he has energetically moving up the vent valve, but the expansion of the vein valves no longer close and the blood flow slows down, resulting in a number of clinical symptoms.

Causes of varicose veins1
Later, the venous walls become weak and thin, and they remain so even after the improve blood circulation.

According to statistics, the symptoms of varicose veins in the legs today suffers every tenth man and every third woman, aged 30-40 years. Among the countries-leaders of incidence is in the developed countries in Europe, where it is diagnosed in 30-40% of the population, the less often varicose veins found in Africa and Asia (about 0.1%).

Why look risk factors

The exact cause of the disease is not known, but most professionals leans towards the hereditary theory: a person whose family there were cases of varicose veins, are at risk. Also factors, provoking the development of the pathology, are:

  • sex. Women suffering from varicose veins to a greater extent than men, and this is due to the growing venous to download pregnancy and childbirth, and hormonal drugs;
  • bad habits and overweight. Smoking, excessive fatty foods, and alcohol have a negative effect on blood circulation in the body, which increases the load on the veins and can cause violations;
  • operating condition. People who, because of the peculiarities of his profession are forced to stand or sit for long periods of time (hairdressers, sellers, waiters, office workers) suffer from this disease more often than others;
  • excessive physical activity. Another group of people who are in danger of developing varicose veins – those engaged in heavy physical work, or some power sports (eg. weight lifting);
  • uncomfortable clothes or shoes. Tight, restrictive clothing and shoes with high heels also contribute to poor venous blood flow.


The most frequently (in 75-80% of cases) the disease affects the trunk and branches of the great saphenous vein 5-10% – foot stems with small, and 7-10% of patients, process as well as the veins.

The clinical course of varicose veins of the lower extremities, experts distinguish two types and four groups.


  • when the descending process extends down from the top of the large femoral vein, begins its mouth;
  • rising – the disease starts with the feet and is caused by a disruption of the valvular apparatus of deep veins.


  • under the skin or inside the skin pathology, not burdened with venous discharge;
  • segmental reflux in the superficial and perforating veins;
  • the most common venous reflux (superficial and perforating veins);
  • extension of reflux in the deep veins.

According to the degree of venous insufficiency there are four main stages of varicose veins:

  • 0 – symptoms may be present, but it is not defined, diagnostic methods;
  • – This stage is characterized by transient edema, and the syndrome of "heavy legs" the appearance of "spider veins;
  • II – the emergence of persistent swelling, which appear in the evening time, to change the color of the skin, eczema;
  • III – the presence of trophic ulcers, including non-healing.

Risk and complications

Risk to the health and life of the patient, not the disease itself, but it causes complications. These include malnutrition of the skin, which may form trophic ulcers, erysipelas, inflammation, as well as the most dangerous complications is thrombophlebitis. It leads to thrombosis, causing blood clots, breaking away from the venous walls, can interfere with the functioning of internal organs, and in the most severe cases cause death of the patient.

In addition, dilated vessels, with thinning of the walls are exposed to mechanical damage, can cause severe bleeding.
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The first symptoms are heaviness and fatigue in the legs, which usually appear in the evening and decrease in the supine position. Vienna acquire a bluish hue and is highlighted on the surface of the skin, is the "spider veins" (spider ' s web of dilated capillaries seen through the skin), and the most typical is that the venous pattern is lost, if the limb be raised to above (for example, put a chair).

Over time, varicose veins are becoming increasingly apparent, is in the form of small nodules or large groups.

The unpleasant symptoms of effects and bother the patient, even at night, appears swelling of soft tissues, most often in the feet, legs and ankles as well as a sense of fullness in the legs and cramps in the calf muscles.

In the absence of a proper treatment of varicose veins progresses, the skin becomes dry, it appears on the seal and dark spots, and eventually ulcers. With the development of thrombophlebitis of the veins become bright red, the cord is visible, and painfully tight on palpation.

When should I contact a doctor?

Many people ignore the first signs of varicose veins, when their usual fatigue. This greatly complicates the treatment of the disease, and it can lead to very serious consequences, so a doctor should be contacted as soon as the first symptoms – constant feeling of fatigue and heavy legs, the color of the veins and the skin, swelling, "vascular asterisks", etc.

Often, a clearer picture of the disease patients need to see other specialists: therapist, gynecologist, vascular surgeon.


The diagnosis "varicose veins of the lower extremities" cause after a comprehensive examination, which includes:

  • General analysis of blood the number of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, leukocytes and hemoglobin is possible to estimate the violation of the blood clotting and inflammation;
  • ultrasound is an effective way to identify diseased vessels and areas of the veins;
  • rheovasography performed in order to determine the malnutrition of the tissues of the blood , which can be determine the stage of the disease;
  • phlebography, which a vein, injected contrast agent, and then with the help of x-ray devices reviews the state of the venous system;
  • physiological samples provide information on the operation of the valve apparatus superficial veins.


Initial stage of varicose veins can be treated with conservative methods such as medication, use the creams and gels, wearing of compression underwear, moderate exercise. Repair of cosmetic defects in patients can be recommended as minimally invasive surgery or laser treatment.

In more advanced cases, varicose veins can be removed only surgical intervention, and its shape is chosen individually in each case separately.
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Forecasts and preventive measures

When varicose veins is an irreversible process, the total recovery in this case, however. But timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and prevention patients can completely get rid of the unpleasant symptoms and live a normal life.

Among the preventive measures of varicose veins are healthy lifestyle, eat right and avoid harmful habits. People, forced to their professional activities for a long time to be in the same position, it is advisable to avoid crossing limbs, from time to time to perform simple exercises, bend and lengthen the leg and make a light massage to improve blood circulation.

In my free time as often as possible, to do walks in the fresh air and have moderate physical activity.

Women who follow the fashion or the business dress code and constantly walking in shoes with heels should from time to time to change them for more comfortable shoes.

The same applies to the uncomfortable clothes, because even constricting underwear can be a cause of impaired blood circulation and appearance of varicose veins on the legs in women.

Varicose veins of the lower extremities is now considered a widespread disease, which often do not attach much importance.

It is important to remember that this inattention to the health of their feet can pay a person who is not only injury, but also life, while in the early stages of varicose veins quite successfully can be cured by the most simple methods.