Varicose veins of the esophagus

Varicose veins of the esophagus in its lower part occurs because of the stagnation in the portal vein to the liver, where the views of the thrombosis and liver cirrhosis. The cause of the disease in the upper part is a malignant goiter. Veins of the liver compress, allowing the blood flow to the difficult for them. Phlebectasia of the esophagus will also appear as a complication of diseases of the heart and spleen.

The factors that cause this disease:

  • stenosis of the portal vein, which is characteristic of adolescents that occur because of thrombosis, multiple sclerosis;
  • liver disease that occurs in old age – liver cirrhosis, amyloidosis, echinococcosis;
  • disease Chiari;
  • tumor of the esophagus;
  • malignant goiter;
  • the vascular pathology.

Varicose veins of the esophagus occurs most often in the following patients:

  • men;
  • people older than 50 years;
  • patients who have had diseases of the pancreas, stomach, heart, chronic cirrhosis of the liver.

The occurrence of bleeding is not only affects the level of pressure, how sharp variation. The risk of rupture is high, and those patients who suffer from vascular diseases that affect the structure of the walls.

Classification

Classification of diseases of varicose veins of the esophagus has been amended several times, however, now you can use the version from 1997 of the veins of the esophagus, which separates the disease degrees:

  • In the first degree. The vein diameter reaches 5 mm, significantly extended, situated on the lower level of the body.
  • In the second degree. Vienna perplex the treaty establishing the diameter reaches 10 mm, which is located in the middle part of the body.
  • The third degree. Vessels dilated more than 10 mm, the walls of the tight, thin, close, writhing in the direction of has red spots on the outer surface.

If varicose veins of the esophagus still caused internal bleeding, according to the statistics — after it survives only 50% of patients. More than half of the family bleeding patients face within 1-3 years, relapse of the disease and have to re-start treatment.

Varicose veins 1 degree

The clinical picture is poorly expressed. The patient is almost nothing to complain about. In the survey, see: varicose veins are not strong to 3 mm veins ectasia no, or only one cavity is not filled. Is diagnosed only through endoscopy. The first degree it is important to start the treatment.

Varicose veins 2 degrees

Well traced the roughness of the ships, because there are nodules greater than 3 mm. In this case, the mucous membrane of the esophagus remain in integrity, without violating its integrity.

Research can be diagnosed with a large protrusion of vessels. The treatment is carried out in a timely manner, the only way to get rid of the unpleasant symptoms of the disease at an early stage. Bleeding is not typical at this stage.

Varicose veins are 3 degree

The most common diagnosis. The patient strongly pronounced symptoms. As a rule, in this case schedule surgery. The veins are very swollen, the nodes clearly to be constantly expanded, occupying 2/3 of the esophagus the mucosa of the esophagus is thin. Occur gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Varicose 4 degrees

This degree of disease present, when the esophagus revealed numerous nodules and veins, not a drop and fine surface. The mucous layer found in the numerous erosion. The patient you are registering, in addition, signs of esophagitis, salty taste in the mouth. Fourth degree often leads to spontaneous bleeding.

Symptoms of varicose veins of the esophagus

The first few years of varicose veins of the esophagus can occur without obvious symptoms. Sometimes there are rare episodes of heartburn, mild heaviness in the chest, belching. Some patients complain of difficulty swallowing food.

Symptoms of progressive disease usually occur several days before the onset of bleeding. The characters are strong of heaviness in the chest and a deterioration of the General health of the patient. In some patients the symptoms can be expressed in the manifestation of ascites.

In addition, the symptoms of the disease veins of the esophagus can manifest itself in the appearance of "jellyfish head". This phenomenon is a model that is quite well seen in the anterior wall of the stomach cavity of different pathological formed convex vessels or veins.

When the veins burst, causing serious bleeding, which is accompanied by the typical symptoms:

  • substantial blood pressure;
  • spotting impurities vomiting;
  • spotting impurities in the stool;
  • expressed tachycardia.

A little blood, a person can feel a little weakness, malaise, and symptoms of anemia. Diagnosed varicose veins of the esophagus in laboratory tests, ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity organs, if necessary, to carry out radiological examinations and esophagoscopy.

Varicose veins of the esophagus1

Diagnosis

The diagnosis put on the basis of complaints, external examination, identification of the primary disease. You can instrumental research include:

  • laboratory data blood;
  • x-ray contrast substance;
  • esophagoscopy, which must be done carefully because of the risk of possible bleeding.

Diagnosis all possible causes should be considered and eliminated, only then can completely and accurately determine the cause of bleeding and changes in the veins of the esophagus.

Treatment of varicose veins of the esophagus

If you experience symptoms of varicose veins of the esophagus treatment is performed only in the icu or intensive care. The basic classification of non-surgical measures aimed at preventing and eliminating the bleeding by reducing the pressure in the vessels:

  1. Medication in the form of vitamins, binders of medicines and antacids (drugs that reduce the acidity of the stomach). This method is directed to prevention of gastric ulcer esophageal inflammation, where the inflammation can go to the walls of blood vessels, causing bleeding.
  2. Transfusion of blood, erythrocyte mass, plasma.
  3. The introduction of colloidal solutions;
  4. Reception to reform the blood and promotes vasoconstriction drugs.

If the listed methods are not sufficiently thorough hemostasis and the risk of re-injury blood vessels in the near future, to resort to surgery.

Varicose veins of the esophagus2

Diet

Patients need lifelong follow a strict diet, although health:

  • several small meals.
  • the exception of hot and cold dishes.
  • shown, low-fat broths and soups, porridge is diluted with milk or water, fruit drinks, fruit wipe, steamed vegetables.
  • only spicy, sour, salty, fatty and fried meat products; everything you need to cook, prepare the mashed potatoes.

Absolutely contraindicated alcohol, carbonated drinks, beer.

Varicose veins of the esophagus3

Prevention

Prevent the transformation of healthy veins of the esophagus pathology of varicose veins, the first necessary to follow the liver and quickly deal with his illness. Experts suggest regularly contact her for advice and follow all recommendations.

The forecast life

Unfortunately, varicose veins of the esophagus incurable. However, if timely diagnosis, appropriate supportive treatment significantly improves the quality of life and help prevent a terrible state – bleeding.

Mortality in patients with recent bleeding in the varicose veins of the esophagus is more than 50 % and depends on the severity of the disease and the state of the whole body. Family after bleeding in a patient in 75% of cases in the next 1-2 years there is a relapse.

Generally, the prognosis for long-term survival of patients with this disease is still low, which mainly is the fault of the most important severe liver disease.

06.03.2018